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Color depth

True color supports 24-bit for three RGB colors. It provides a method of representing and storing graphical-image information (especially in computer processing) in an RGB color space such that a very large number of colors, shades, and hues can be displayed in an image, such as in high-quality photographic images or complex graphics. Usually, true color is defined to mean 256 shades of red, green, and blue, for a total of 224 or 16,777,216 color variations. The human eye can discriminate up to ten million colors.

Graphics display resolutions



The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI, pronounced as an initialism U-E-F-I or like “unify” without the n[a]) is a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware. UEFI is meant to replace the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) firmware interface, originally present in all IBM PC-compatible personal computers. In practice, most UEFI firmware images provide legacy support for BIOS services. UEFI can support remote diagnostics and repair of computers, even without another operating system.


GUID Partition Table (GPT) is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical hard disk, using globally unique identifiers (GUID). Although it forms a part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) standard (Unified EFI Forum proposed replacement for the PC BIOS), it is also used on some BIOS systems because of the limitations of master boot record (MBR) partition tables, which use 32 bits for storing logical block addresses (LBA) and size information.


ADSL = Asymmetric digital subscriber line

Commonly, microfilters are only low-pass filters, so beyond them only low frequencies (voice signals) can pass. In the data section, a microfilter is not used because digital devices that are intended to extract data from the DSL signal will, themselves, filter out low frequencies. Voice telephone devices will pick up the entire spectrum so high frequencies, including the ADSL signal, will be “heard” as noise in telephone terminals, and will affect and often degrade the service in fax, dataphones and modems. From the point of view of DSL devices, any acceptance of their signal by POTS devices mean that there is a degradation of the DSL signal to the devices, and this is the central reason why these filters are required.

Wi-Fi Protected Access

Wi-Fi Protected Access

Wi-Fi Protected Setup

A major security flaw was revealed in December 2011 that affects wireless routers with the WPS PIN feature, which most recent models have enabled by default. The flaw allows a remote attacker to recover the WPS PIN in a few hours with a brute-force attack and, with the WPS PIN, the network's WPA/WPA2 pre-shared key. Users have been urged to turn off the WPS PIN feature,[5] although this may not be possible on some router models.

Samsung N130 Netbook

  • decrapifying = getting rid of all the crapware that it came loaded with, like a load of harmless games from Oberon Media Inc.
  • Multi Card Slot 3-in-1 (SD, SDHC, MMC).
  • RAM I upgraded to the maximum 2GB, which is now beginning to struggle with lots of web pages open.
  • USB ports also provide power to charge smartphones etc. Often offers to Scan and Fix a flash USB drive, but then finds no errors.
  • Windows 7 Home Starter, which I've been pushing way beyond it's specifications for four years, recently got to a point at which it just won't Update anymore, even if I go right back to the factory installation…

SATA hard disk drive… 1.25 kg (2.6 lb) (including battery)

Samsung Recovery Solution 4

I chose a 40GB C: drive. The first backup was made in a hidden partition.

Folder D:\SamsungRecovery is created, containing the proprietary backup files, which are readily restored, either from the system tray icon, or by pressing F4 at bootup. The program will only work with precisely that folder, so I append a date mark to that foldername after each backup which tricks the program into doing its next backup afresh in a new instance of the folder D:\SamsungRecovery. By doing so I'm losing the space saving of incremental backups, but gaining the ability to delete a backup that is no longer useful to me. When I want to Restore, I rename my chosen backup folder to D:\SamsungRecovery, and the program finds it.

Belarc Advisor and Programs and Features show that my N130 comes with version, which was easily updated using downloaded from Support.

Computer data storage

Auxiliary Memory in Computer data storage:

Flash Memory cards are now usually at least Secure Digital (SD) (the name is not a reference to encryption).

Master boot record

The MBR holds the information on how the logical partitions, containing file systems, are organized on that medium. Besides that, the MBR also contains executable code to function as a loader for the installed operating system—usually by passing control over to the loader's second stage, or in conjunction with each partition's volume boot record (VBR). This MBR code is usually referred to as a boot loader.


File Allocation Table - is usually FAT32 now. (

Timestamp of files written to FAT:

  • GNU/Linux writes all files with UTC timestamp, but shows them in the local-time for the file's date.
  • MSWin writes all files with current local-time.

For me in the summer in France, this means that MSWin sees files written by GNU/Linux to the stick as 2 hours earlier than the time they were actually written, and vice versa.



DVD region code

Older DVD drives use RPC-1 (“Regional Playback Control”) firmware, which means the drive allows DVDs from any region to play. Newer drives use RPC-2 firmware, which enforces the DVD region coding at the hardware level. These drives can often be reflashed or hacked with RPC-1 firmware, effectively making the drive region-free. This may void the drive warranty.

Optical disc recording modes

In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once.

Content Scramble System


a free and open source software library for accessing and unscrambling DVDs encrypted with the Content Scramble System (CSS). libdvdcss is part of the VideoLAN project and is used by VLC media player and other DVD player software such as Ogle, xine-based players, and MPlayer.

at Wikipedia

(CSS) is a digital rights management (DRM) and encryption system employed on almost all commercially produced DVD-Video discs. CSS utilizes a proprietary 40-bit stream cipher algorithm. The system was introduced around 1996 and was first compromised in 1999.
While most CSS-decrypting software is used to play DVD videos, other pieces of software (such as DVD Decrypter, AnyDVD, DVD43, Smartripper, WinX DVD Ripper Platinum and DVD Shrink) can copy a DVD to a hard drive and remove Macrovision, CSS encryption, region codes, and user operation prohibition.
CSS has been superseded by newer DRM schemes such as Content Protection for Recordable Media (CPRM), or by Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Advanced Access Content System (AACS) DRM scheme used by HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc, which have 56-bit and 128-bit key sizes, respectively, providing a much higher level of security than the less secure 40-bit key size of CSS.
CSS's weakness is primarily due to the regulations placed on the export of cryptographic systems from the United States. At the time that CSS was introduced, it was forbidden in the United States for manufacturers to export cryptographic systems employing keys in excess of 40 bits, a key length that had already been shown to be wholly inadequate in the face of increasing computer processing power (see Data Encryption Standard). In addition, structural flaws in CSS reduce the effective key length to only around 16 bits, allowing for CSS to be compromised in less than a minute by brute-force with a 450 MHz processor.


HP Envy 553x

HP ENVY 5532:

  • Arch Linux lsusb reports just “Hewlett-Packard” once it's been powered on
  • enabling: sudo cupsenable ENVY_5530
  • printed pages come out head first (= upside down, printed face up)
  • set as default: lpoptions -d ENVY_5530 reports “system default destination: ENVY_5530”

User Guides:

  • Setup Poster c03789894.pdf very basic, plugging in
  • Reference Guide c03789887.pdf good quick info
  • User Guide c03773204.pdf > Technical information > Specifications > Print specifications doesn't state how close to the paper edges can print, but it's borderless

HP Pavilion x360 11-n012na

  • Device Manager > Disk Drives reports “TOSHIBA MQ01ABF050”
  • InsydeH20 Setup Utility Rev. 5.0 (= the UEFI) Main > BIOS Version reports F.15
  • User Guide reports that only back right USB port is v3.0

Windows 10

PS> Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_BIOS
SMBIOSBIOSVersion : F.15
Manufacturer      : Insyde
Name              : F.15
SerialNumber      : CND5121TM5
Version           : HPQOEM - 3


System > About reports:

  • Version 1511
  • OS Build 10586.318
  • OS Build 10586.494

Update & security:

  • Activation reports:
    • “Edition: Windows 10 Home”
    • “Product Key: Windows 10 on this device is activated with a digital entitlement.”
  • Recovery > Restart now > Troubleshoot > Advanced options > UEFI Firmware Settings > Restart just takes me into the (Bootup > Esc) Startup Menu
cross_platform/hw.txt · Last modified: 2016/10/05 10:24 (external edit)